ProPublica



Introduction


ProPublica is a left wing investigative news organization. ProPublica is funded by, and has ties to, some of America’s most extreme liberal ideologues. Newspapers and other media outlets regularly print ProPublica work.


History and Mission


ProPublica claims to be “an independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest.”[1] ProPublica was established in 2007 and it began publishing in 2008.[2] Liberal billionaires Herbert and Marion Sandler founded ProPublica and as of September 2011 continued to be its main source of funding (Marion Sandler passed away in June 2012 at the age of 81).[3] ProPublica work tends to slant left and so do its readers.[4] ProPublica offers its “investigative” stories for free to the media.[5] Among others, ProPublica columns regularly appear in the New York Times, The Washington Post, The Oregonian, and on National Public Radio (NPR).

ProPublica’s stated mission is “[t]o expose abuses of power and betrayals of the public trust by government, business, and other institutions, using the moral force of investigative journalism to spur reform through the sustained spotlighting of wrongdoing.”[6]

ProPublica’s work primarily “exposes” big business, the military, and conservatives. ProPublica writers have produced hit pieces on former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin, the oil and natural gas industry, the American military, and conservatives. Ron Arnold of Undue Influenceexplains that ProPublica is “[u]nder control of billionaire mortgage lender and founding donor Herbert Sandler, a board of directors including the Pew Charitable Trusts, and a manager from the Rockefeller Foundation - as independent as a lapdog on a leash with allegiances sworn in advance to left-wing causes.”[7]


Founders / Leadership


Herbert M. Sandler and Marion O. Sandler established ProPublica in 2007 with an initial infusion of $10 million, which they promised to replenish annually.[8] The Sandlers are billionaires who support Democratic candidates at all levels of government and donate generously to liberal organizations.[9] The Sandlers amassed their wealth as owners of Golden West Financial Corporation, one of the largest home mortgage lenders in the country.[10] The Sandlers played a large role in the home mortgage crisis that led to the great recession of the late 2000s. They, however, sold their bank to Wachovia for $24 billion just prior to the collapse.[11] Time magazine listed the Sandlers in its column, “25 People to Blame for the Financial Crisis.”[12]

As writer Cheryl K. Chumley explained in a 2009 Capital Research Center article, “[h]aving gotten out of the market at precisely the right time, the Sandlers are flush with cash, and they are throwing mountains of money around in an effort to make America more liberal.”[13] According to Chumley, in 2004, the Sandlers donated “$13 million dollars to pro-John Kerry 527 organizations– including $2.5 million to the MoveOn.org Voter Fund.”[14]

After Senator Kerry lost the 2004 Presidential election, the Sandlers increased their efforts to spread liberalism. They started by joining George Soros’ far-left Democracy Alliance.[15] The Democracy Alliance is a collection of billionaires “whose mission [is] to avoid future political defeats by building an organizational infrastructure of liberal think-tanks, leadership schools and media outlets to rival the imagined ‘vast right wing conspiracy.’”[16]

From 2003-2009, the Sandlers donated approximately $250 million to liberal non-profits and advocacy groups.[17] According to Cheryl K. Chumley in a Capital Research Center article:[18]
[the Sandlers’] Grants have gone to a constellation of left-liberal public interest groups and foundations, including Media Matters for America, John Podesta’s Center for American Progress, the William J. Clinton Foundation, Tides Foundation, Center for Community Change, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Drum Major Institute for Public Policy, Center for Responsible Lending, Natural Resources Defense Council, Environmental Defense Fund, Pew Charitable Trusts, and two ACORN affiliates, Project Vote and the American Institute for Social Justice.

In addition to financially backing ProPublica, Herbert Sandler oversees its operations as Chairman of the Board.[19]

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. also serves on ProPublica’s Board of Directors.[20] Gates is a Harvard professor and friend of President Barack Obama. In July 2009, Gates, a black man, was arrested for disorderly conduct when the police were called to his house.[21] Gates falsely accused the white police officer of racial profiling.[22]


Work


ProPublica’s influence is the result of fortunate timing. In the late 2000s, newspaper readership and revenue declined.[23] As a result, many newspapers reduced costs and staffing.[24] By providing its content for free to the media, ProPublica can fill a void and reduce costs for much of the print media. Blogger Anita Moncrief of HotAir.com has explained the relationship this way:[25]
Given obvious lack of interest or real investigation into the background and connections of ProPublica it is obvious why failing newspapers like the New York Times would turn to them for help. A lack of resources for investigative journalists on staff and the inherent desire to push a liberal agenda have led to a marriage of convenience whose very existence threatens the integrity of the field.

In addition to the New York Times, The Washington Post, National Public Radio, The Time Union, The Guardian, The Oregonian, The Orlando Sentinel, The Boston Globe, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Chicago Tribune, The Huffington Post, and The Seattle Timesall publish ProPublica work. Also, in June 2009, the Associated Press (the “AP”) announced that it would distribute ProPublica content.[26] Many Americans have long complained that AP articles tend liberal.[27] The AP distributes articles to approximately 1,500 sources.[28]

ProPublica’s place in the modern news cycle is unique – investigative journalism given away for free with a partisan flare. When ProPublica was formed in 2007, Jack Shafer, then of Slate,commented, “nothing on this scale and with this investigative focus has been attempted before in journalism.”[29]

Major ProPublica investigative news stories include:

  • Dollars for Docs: ProPublica compiled a searchable database of dollar amounts that drug companies paid to specific doctors. “ProPublica compiled these disclosures, totaling $295 million, into a single database that allows patients to search for their doctor.”[30]

  • Tainted Drywall: ProPublica compiled a searchable database on tainted drywall in the United States.[31]

  • Gitmo: ProPublica investigates the detention of terrorists in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on an ongoing basis.[32]

  • Gas Drilling: ProPublica has a collection of stories with a very green slant critical of the natural gas industry.[33]

  • Loan Modifications: ProPublica has an extensive amount of information on loan modification efforts following the U.S. housing bubble collapse.[34] ProPublica articles generally ­­­posit that both government and private actors have a responsibility to ensure that individuals remain in foreclosed homes.[35]

  • Gulf Oil Spill: ProPublica has written dozens of articles on the 2010 British Petroleum oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.[36]

In January 2011, ProPublica announced it would begin publishing advertising on its website.[37] Many readers commented on the ProPublica announcement, expressing dismay that its decision would delegitimize ProPublica’s supposed objectivity.[38]


Awards


In 2010, ProPublica journalist Sheri Fink won a Pulitzer Prize for her work in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina at New Orleans’ Memorial Medical Center.[39]


Liberal Slant


Besides its liberal leadership, there is an array of evidence, both empirical and anecdotal, that shows ProPublica’s liberal slant.

In 2008 and again in 2010, ProPublica issued reader surveys that showed it is not in line with, nor does it cater to, average Americans. The 2008 survey was emailed and available on the ProPublica website.[40] ProPublica displayed the results separately.[41] In the 2008 survey, only five percent of web respondents and six percent of email respondents identified as conservatives.[42] The remaining 95 and 96 percent respectively identify as liberal, moderate, or non-ideological, with over half of the respondents identifying as liberals.[43] Even ProPublica admits that these numbers are far from the American demographic, noting, “the [2008] presidential election exit polls found voters self-identified as follows: 44% moderate, 34% conservative, 22% liberal.”[44] Additionally, in the 2008 survey 100 percent of respondents said that ProPublica’s reporting was liberal, moderate, or non-ideological – zero percent thought ProPublica’s reporting was conservative.[45]

ProPublica’s 2010 survey yielded similar results. More than half ProPublica’s readers (56 percent) identify as liberals and only eight percent as conservatives.[46] A June 2010[47] Gallup poll shows that 42 percent of Americans identify as conservative while only 20 percent identify as liberal.[48] And again in 2010, ProPublica reported that no respondents considered its news coverage conservative.[49]

ProPublica’s reporters have frequently attacked former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin.[50] ProPublica reporters also seem to ignore negative reports about liberals such as President Barack Obama and the defunct activist group ACORN, according to blogger Anita Moncrief. She explains, “[i]t doesn’t seem that there is much restraint at Sandler’s ProPublica where they have attacked ACORN detractors and refused to investigate any story related to corruption in the Obama administration.”[51]

Many ProPublica articles carry a disclaimer stating the group is non-partisan and non-profit.[52] ProPublica articles appear in the “news” portion of most newspapers and not in the “opinion” section.


Imprecise Work


ProPublica has been guilty of sloppy reporting.

  • ProPublica covered the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill extensively.[53] In one instance, a ProPublica piece in the Alaska Dispatch claimed that BP’s North Slopes facility in Alaska had 151 (later reduced to 148) pipelines that received a an “F-rank” and all those pipes were at least a 80 percent corroded.[54] According to BP, however, there were 151 F-rank locations (not pipes) and the 80 percent corrosion number was inaccurate.[55]

  • In November 2008, The Denver Post ran a ProPublica column[56] claiming hydraulic fracturing for natural gas caused contamination in more than 1,000 water wells.[57] According to Dave Kopel of The Rocky Mountain News, “ProPublica apparently pulled a bait-and-switch - citing data about contamination from any drilling-related activity, but claiming that the data were about hydraulic fracturing.”[58] ProPublica wrote Kopel trying to twist the facts; however, Kopel concluded, “[t]he response does not explain why so many key ‘facts’ in the ProPublica article are indisputably false.”[59]


Conclusion


Writing in Slate, Jack Shafer wrote, “[i]f I were a newspaper editor considering ProPublica copy for a future issue, the first thing I’d want is proof of a firewall preventing the Sandlers or other funders from picking – or nixing – the targets of its probes.”[60] As of 2011, the Sandlers still fund ProPublica and Herbert Sandler is still the Chairman of the board.


Leadership (as of August 2011)


Paul Steiger, Editor-in-Chief (2008 Salary: $571,687)
Stephen Engelberg, Managing Editor (2008 Salary: $343,463)
Richard Tofel, General Manager (2008 Salary: $320,978)
Dafna Linzer, Senior Reporter (2008 Salary: $205,455)
Tracy Weber, Senior Reporter (2008 Salary, $176,309)
Debby Goldberg, Vice President/Development
Herbert Sandler, Chairman of the Board
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Board Member
Alberto Ibargüen, Board Member[61]
Gara LaMarche, Board member[62]


Contact Information


One Exchange Plaza
55 Broadway
23rd Floor
New York, NY 10006
Phone: 212-514-5250
Fax: 212-785-2634
Website: http://www.propublica.org/




The National Center For Public Policy Research publishes GroupSnoop. The National Center is a non-profit communications and research foundation that supports free-market and pro-Constitution approaches to today’s policy problems. The National Center is supported by the voluntary gifts of over 100,000 individual recent supporters, receiving less than one percent of its revenue from corporate sources. Contributions to the National Center are tax-deductible and greatly appreciated!

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  1. ^ “About Us,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/as of August 29, 2011.
  2. ^ “About Us,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/as of August 29, 2011.
  3. ^ Ed Lasky, “All the News That Fits Soros’s Agenda,” American Thinker, available at http://www.americanthinker.com/2010/10/all_the_news_that_fits_soros_a.htmlas of August 29, 2011.
  4. ^ See infra “Liberal Slant” section.
  5. ^ “About Us – Steal Our Stories,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/steal-our-stories/ as of August 29, 2011. (“Unless otherwise noted, you can republish our articles and graphics for free.”)
  6. ^ “About Us,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/ as of August 29, 2011.
  7. ^ Ron Arnold, “ProPublica, Inc.,” Undue Influence – Ron Arnold’s Left Tracking Library, available at http://www.undueinfluence.com/pro_publica.htm as of August 29, 2011.
  8. ^ Jack Shafer, “What Do Herbert and Marion Sandler Want?,” Slate, October 15, 2007, available at http://www.slate.com/id/2175942/as of August 29, 2011.
  9. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdfas of August 29, 2011.
  10. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdfas of August 29, 2011.
  11. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdf as of August 29, 2011.
  12. ^ “25 People to Blame for the Financial Crisis,” Time, available at http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877343,00.html as of August 29, 2011.
  13. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdfas of August 29, 2011.
  14. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdf as of August 29, 2011.
  15. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdfas of August 29, 2011.
  16. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdf as of August 29, 2011.
  17. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdfas of August 29, 2011.
  18. ^ Cheryl K. Chumley, “ProPublica: Investigative Journalism or Liberal Spin?” Capital Research Center, May 2009, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/pubs/pdf/v1241117859.pdf as of August 29, 2011.
  19. ^ “About Us – Boards and Advisors,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/leadership/ as of August 29, 2011.
  20. ^ “About Us – Boards and Advisors,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/leadership/as of August 29, 2011.
  21. ^ Abby Goodnough, “Harvard Professor Jailed; Officer Is Accused of Bias,” The New York Times, July 20, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/21/us/21gates.htmlas of August 29, 2011.
  22. ^ Abby Goodnough, “Harvard Professor Jailed; Officer Is Accused of Bias,” The New York Times, July 20, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/21/us/21gates.html as of August 29, 2011.
  23. ^ “Newspaper Publishers Revenues Decline in 2008,” Big Sky Business Journal, January 6, 2010, available at http://www.bigskybusiness.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=934:newspaper-publishers-revenues-decline-in-2008&catid=7:features&Itemid=112as of August 29, 2011.
  24. ^ On its website, ProPublica explains: “Investigative journalism is at risk. Many news organizations have increasingly come to see it as a luxury. Today’s investigative reporters lack resources: Time and budget constraints are curbing the ability of journalists not specifically designated “investigative” to do this kind of reporting in addition to their regular beats. This is therefore a moment when new models are necessary to carry forward some of the great work of journalism in the public interest that is such an integral part of self-government, and thus an important bulwark of our democracy.” “About Us,” ProPublica, available at http://www.propublica.org/about/as of January 10, 2011.
  25. ^ Anita Moncrief, “Democracy Alliance and ACORN Affiliated Group Wins Pulitzer Prize with the New York Times,” Hot Air, April 14, 2010, available at http://hotair.com/greenroom/archives/2010/04/14/democracy-alliance-and-acorn-affiliated-group-wins-pulitzer-prize-with-the-new-york-times/ as of August 29, 2011.
  26. ^ “AP to Distribute Content from Nonprofit Journalism Organizations,” Associated Press – Press Release, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.ap.org/pages/about/pressreleases/pr_061309a.htmlas of August 29, 2011. (Note that the AP also announced it would distribute the Center for Investigative Reporting, the Center for Public Integrity, and the Investigative Reporting Workshop content).
  27. ^ “Associated Press, MSNBC and CNBC Seen as Having Liberal Bias,” Rasmussen Reports, July 22, 2007, synopsis available at http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/media/associated_press_msnbc_and_cnbc_seen_as_having_liberal_biasas of August 29, 2011.
  28. ^ “AP to Distribute Content from Nonprofit Journalism Organizations,” Associated Press – Press Release, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.ap.org/pages/about/pressreleases/pr_061309a.html as of August 29, 2011.
  29. ^ Jack Shafer, “What Do Herbert and Marion Sandler Want?,” Slate, October 15, 2007, available at http://www.slate.com/id/2175942/ as of August 29, 2011.
  30. ^ Dan Nguyen, Charles Ornstein, and Tracy Weber, “Dollars for Docs,” ProPublica – Tools & Data, last updated December 22, 2010, available at http://projects.propublica.org/docdollars/ as of August 29, 2011. For an example of ProPublica work published in the mainstream media see: Liz Kowalczyk, “Prescription for Prestige,” Boston Globe, October 19, 2010, available at http://www.boston.com/news/health/articles/2010/10/19/mass_doctors_earn_drug_firms_dollars/?page=full as of August 29, 2011.
  31. ^ Jeff Larson and Joaquin Sapien, ProPublica and Aaron Kessler, Sarasota Herald Tribune, “Find Homes with Tainted Drywall,” ProPublica – Tools & Data, December 14, 2010, available at http://projects.propublica.org/drywall/ as of August 29, 2011.
  32. ^ “The Detention Dilemma,” ­ProPublica – Our Investigations, available at http://www.propublica.org/topic/the-detention-dilemma as of August 29, 2011.
  33. ^ “Fracking: Gas Drilling's Environmental Threat,” ProPublica – Our Investigations, available at http://www.propublica.org/series/buried-secrets-gas-drillings-environmental-threat as of August 29, 2011.
  34. ^ “Eye on Loan Modifications,” ProPublica – Our Investigations, available at http://www.propublica.org/ion/loan-modifications as of August 29, 2011.
  35. ^ For a contrasting article from an economic perspective, see: Thomas Sowell, “Saving the Housing Market,” Townhall, January 5, 2011, available at http://townhall.com/columnists/ThomasSowell/2011/01/05/saving_the_housing_market as of August 29, 2011.
  36. ^ “Gulf Oil Spill,” ProPublica – Our Investigations, available at http://www.propublica.org/topic/gulf-oil-spill as of August 29, 2011.
  37. ^ Richard Tofel, “Why We’re Publishing Advertising, and Where We Stand on Funding,” ProPublica, January 4, 2011, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/why-were-publishing-advertising-and-where-we-stand-on-fundingas of August 29, 2011.
  38. ^ See for example a comment by David Uozumi on January 5, 2011, at 7:54 a.m.: “Please note the disappointment of one of your “more than 1300 donors in 2010.” It appears that you’ve accepted a business model under which independence is not possible.” Available at http://www.propublica.org/article/why-were-publishing-advertising-and-where-we-stand-on-funding as of August 29, 2011.
  39. ^ “2010 Winners and Finalists,” The Pulitzer Prize, available at http://www.pulitzer.org/awards/2010 as of August 29, 2011.
  40. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222as of August 29, 2011.
  41. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222as of August 29, 2011.
  42. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222 as of August 29, 2011.
  43. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222as of August 29, 2011.
  44. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222as of August 29, 2011.
  45. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, December 22, 2008, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey-1222 as of August 29, 2011.
  46. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, June 9, 2010, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-surveyas of August 29, 2011.
  47. ^ This is the same timeframe as the 2010 ProPublica poll.
  48. ^ Lydia Saad, “In 2010, Conservatives Still Outnumber Moderates, Liberals,” Gallup, June 25, 2010, available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/141032/2010-Conservatives-Outnumber-Moderates-Liberals.aspxas of August 29, 2011.
  49. ^ Richard Tofel, “Results of Our Reader Survey,” ProPublica, June 9, 2010, available at http://www.propublica.org/article/results-of-our-reader-survey as of August 29, 2011.
  50. ^ See for example: “Scandal: Palin ‘Troopergate’,” ProPublica, last updated October 16, 2010, available at http://www.propublica.org/scandal/troopergateas of August 29, 2011.
  51. ^ Anita Moncrief, “Democracy Alliance and ACORN Affiliated Group Wins Pulitzer Prize with the New York Times,” Hot Air, April 14, 2010, available at http://hotair.com/greenroom/archives/2010/04/14/democracy-alliance-and-acorn-affiliated-group-wins-pulitzer-prize-with-the-new-york-times/ as of August 29, 2011.
  52. ^ See for example: Ryan McNeill and Marina Trahan Martinez, “Doctors Disciplined by Texas Earn Money from Drug Firms, Records Show,” The Dallas Morning News, November 18, 2010, available at http://www.dallasnews.com/health/headlines/20101118-doctors-disciplined-by-texas-earn-money-from-drug-firms-records-show.ece as of August 29, 2011. (The disclaimer was placed at the end of the lengthy article and stated: “This story was researched in conjunction with ProPublica, an independent, nonprofit journalism website based in New York. All figures on drug company payments to physicians were assembled by ProPublica and made available to The Dallas Morning News.”)
  53. ^ “Gulf Oil Spill,” ProPublica – Our Investigations, available at http://www.propublica.org/topic/gulf-oil-spill as of August 29, 2011.
  54. ^ Abrahm Lustgarten, “BP Alaska Facilities Still at Risk,” The Alaska Dispatch, November 7, 2010, available at http://alaskadispatch.com/dispatches/energy/7379-bp-alaska-facilities-still-at-risk as of August 29, 2011.
  55. ^ Steve Rinehart (BP Spokesman), “BP Responds to ProPublica Pipeline Corrosion Report,” The Alaska Dispatch, November 8, 2010, available at http://alaskadispatch.com/dispatches/energy/7421-bp-responds-to-propublica-pipeline-corrosion-report as of August 29, 2011.
  56. ^ Abrahm Lustgarten, “Drilling Process Causes Water Supply Alarm,” The Denver Post, November 17, 2008, available at http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_11001835 as of August 29, 2011.
  57. ^ Abrahm Lustgarten, “Drilling Process Causes Water Supply Alarm,” The Denver Post, November 17, 2008, available at http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_11001835 as of August 29, 2011.
  58. ^ Dave Kopel, “ProPublica’s Shaky Facts,” The Rocky Mountain News, January 10, 2009, available at http://www.rockymountainnews.com/news/2009/jan/10/kopel-propublicas-shaky-facts/ as of August 29, 2011.
  59. ^ Dave Kopel, “ProPublica’s Shaky Facts,” The Rocky Mountain News, January 10, 2009, available at http://www.rockymountainnews.com/news/2009/jan/10/kopel-propublicas-shaky-facts/ as of August 29, 2011.
  60. ^ Jack Shafer, “What Do Herbert and Marion Sandler Want?,” Slate, October 15, 2007, available at http://www.slate.com/id/2175942/ as of August 29, 2011.
  61. ^ Alberto Ibargüen is also President and Chief Executive Officer of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.
  62. ^ Gara LaMarche is President and Chief Executive Officer of The Atlantic Philanthropies.