EARTHWORKS


Introduction


Earthworks is an American non-profit environmental organization. Based in Washington, D.C., Earthworks seeks to prevent or limit mining operations, natural gas production, hydraulic fracturing and oil production. Earthworks is a vocal opponent of mining in Bristol Bay, Alaska – an area commonly known as the Pebble Mine.

Earthworks is affiliated with Robert Gillam, a billionaire who funds opposition groups and campaigns seeking to shutter any mining in Bristol Bay.

Extreme left-wing foundations such as the Tides Foundation, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation and the David & Lucile Packard Foundation provide significant funding to Earthworks.


History / Mission

In 2005, the Mineral Policy Center and the Oil & Gas Accountability Project merged to create Earthworks.[1] Phil Hocker, Mike McCloskey and former Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall started MPC in 1988 in an effort to reform state and federal mining laws.[2] The Oil & Gas Accountability Project worked to stop oil and gas development.[3] Earthworks continues to work on both of these issues.

According to its website, Earthworks is “dedicated to protecting communities and the environment from the impacts of irresponsible mineral and energy development while seeking sustainable solutions. Earthworks stands for clean water, healthy communities and corporate accountability. We’re working for solutions that protect both the Earth’s resources as well as our communities.”[4]


Work


Our Bristol Bay


Earthworks opposes mining in Bristol Bay, Alaska and dedicates significant resources to halting mineral production in the region. The Pebble Partnership of Anglo American PLC and Northern Dynasty Minerals is informally considering mining operations in an area of Bristol Bay commonly known as Pebble Mine. Even though the partnership has no formal plans, and has not yet submitted any proposal for federal or state review, Earthworks is trying to preemptively halt the project.

Earthworks has an entire section of its website dedicated to opposition of this yet-to-be proposed mine.[5] According to Earthworks, the evils of the project – which they do not yet know the details of – are legion. They claim:

  • “Due to the sulfides in the ore, the ore at the proposed Pebble Mine is considered ‘reactive,’ at high risk for acid and metals pollution.”[6]

  • “According to a recent scientific report, ‘our findings remove any doubt that the construction of a mine will destroy salmon and salmon rearing habitat.’”[7] Earthworks also notes that the “mine site is located at the headwaters of the Bristol Bay watershed, which supports the largest remaining wild sockeye salmon fishery in the world.”[8]

  • According to Earthworks, the mine “will generate as much as 10 billion tons of mine waste (tailings), which will be stored at the headwaters of Bristol Bay behind large dams in perpetuity.”[9]

  • The Pebble Mine area is prone to earthquakes, claims Earthworks, and “[i]f tailings dams were damaged by earthquakes, mine waste could be released into the environment and the rivers and streams that support fisheries with devastating results.”[10]

  • “Every year, millions of wild salmon make the epic journey from the ocean to the rivers and streams that feed Bristol Bay to reproduce – supplying the world with healthy seafood, a feast for hungry bears, eagles and beluga whales, and roughly 14,000 jobs along the way. Now, plans for a massive open pit, copper and gold mine, known as the Pebble Mine, put the future of the fishery in question.”[11] Earthworks made this claim on October 4, 2012, however, at that time, no formal plan for a mine had been proposed.

Earthworks concludes that the operations of what may someday be the Pebble Mine will undoubtedly pollute and destroy the region. They claim, “[w]hile there may be metal wealth in the ground, its value is fleeting when compared to the enormous economic and social riches to be derived forever from the sustainable fisheries and wildlife habitat a Pebble mine would ruin.”[12]

Earthworks also encourages its supporters and visitors to its website to write letters to President Barack Obama and Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa Jackson, asking them to prohibit the Pebble Mine project.[13] In fact, Earthworks wrote a form letter that individuals can simply sign and submit, claiming that “[t]he science demonstrates that large-scale mining, such as the Pebble Mine, represents a long-term risk to the sustainability of this important fishery – and all the people and businesses that rely on it.”[14]

Earthworks also publishes academic reports claiming irreversible damage if the Pebble Mine proceeds. In July 2012, Earthworks published a report that, according to them, “document[ed] the record of chronic pipeline spills, uncontrolled seepage, and other failures at operating U.S. copper mines, and finds that the proposed Pebble Mine would have an extremely high likelihood of releasing toxic substances into the Bristol Bay watershed.”[15]

In November 2012, Earthworks published another report claiming that “the risks [from the Pebble Mine] to wild salmon populations are ‘very high,’ and that it is cause for significant concern regarding the long-term abundance and sustainability of salmon in the region.”[16]

The Pebble Mine has the potential to reap tremendous wealth and create thousands of jobs in Bristol Bay. Estimates place the value of Pebble Mine at $400 billion.[17] In the Homer News, columnist Andrew Jensen wrote that “Pebble could potentially triple U.S. reserves of copper, increase its gold reserves by 50 percent and make America the world’s largest holder of mineral molybdenum, an essential component of high-strength steel alloys.”[18] Additionally, writing in Politico, Grover Norquist and Patrick Gleason explain that “Alaska would greatly benefit from the thousands of high-paying jobs that Pebble Mine would bring. It could generate $6 billion in regional investment, which would be a boon to the local community, as well as the employers and workers who would supply and construct the mine.”[19]



Oil & Gas Accountability Project


Earthworks’ Oil & Gas Accountability Project works on state and federal reforms to limit or halt gas and oil production. Specifically, Earthworks opposes hydraulic fracturing – a process commonly known as fracking – as a means of tapping oil and natural gas reserves.

Earthworks endorses “Stop the Frack Attack,” a coalition group opposed to fracking.[20] The Stop the Frack Attack website states that it is a collection of “concerned citizens and groups seeking to protect their health and their families from an industry that is exempt from basic environmental protections, coddled by regulators, and supported by generous tax incentives to drill next to our schools and homes while polluting our air and water.”[21]

Despite Earthworks’ claims, experts have concluded that – in areas where water contamination has occurred – it is almost always related to well construction and has nothing to do with fracking. The Wall Street Journal explains, “Mark Boling, executive vice president and general counsel of Southwestern Energy Co., a major natural-gas producer, said he has examined several incidents in Colorado and Pennsylvania where gas drilling appears to have caused gas to get into drinking water. ‘Every one we identified was caused by a failure of the integrity of the well, and almost always it was the cement job.’”[22]


Keystone XL Pipeline


Earthworks opposes the Keystone XL Pipeline – a project that would bring major oil-sand deposits from Alberta, Canada to the United States for refining.[23] In June 2010, Earthworks policy director Lauren Pagel testified at a U.S. Department of State hearing about the proposed pipeline and used the tragedy of the BP Gulf Coast oil spill to press State Department officials to reject the project, claiming “[p]eople in rural areas are at risk because the pipeline safety requirements are not applied in their communities, and accidents and spills do happen.”[24] The Capital Research Center claims that Earthworks and other American-based environmental groups are coordinating their attacks on the Alberta oil sands and the Keystone XL pipeline. They claim, “[m]embers of the anti-oil sands network include Earthworks, Environmental Defense, Forest Ethics, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace USA, National Wildlife Federation, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Rainforest Action Network and the Sierra Club. Each green non-profit takes a different approach in attacking the oil sands, but all share the goal of demonizing development.”[25]

Earthworks and other environmental groups convinced President Barack Obama to delay the pipeline. According to the Heritage Foundation, “[d]espite the Department of State’s (DOS) finding that Keystone XL would pose no significant environmental threat, environmental activists’ relentless opposition persuaded President Obama to deny the permit application… President Obama is catering to a narrow group of special interests.”[26]

According to the American Petroleum Institute, the “Keystone XL pipeline expansion would provide a significant boost to U.S. energy security, bringing an extra 830,000 barrels of oil per day to U.S. refineries. With the pipeline, our crude imports from Canada could reach 4 million barrels a day by 2020, twice what we currently import from the Persian Gulf.” [27] In addition to increasing North American energy independence, the Keystone XL Pipeline is estimated to create tens of thousands of jobs. The American Petroleum Institute explains that the project could “create 20,000 construction jobs over the life of the project. Projects like this, along with additional investment in oil sands development in Canada and expansion of pipelines and refineries in the U.S. make it possible to realize an additional 500,000 U.S. jobs in 2035.”[28]


No Dirty Gold Campaign


Earthworks’ “No Dirty Gold Campaign” is a corporate pressure effort to stop jewelers and retailers from using minerals that Earthworks considers tainted. According to its website, “[t]he No Dirty Gold campaign aims to change the way gold is mined, bought and sold. The way it happens now, drinking water is contaminated, traditional livelihoods are destroyed, and indigenous communities are displaced.”[29] As of October 2012, Earthworks boasted that 80 jewelers and retailers had signed a pledge supporting the “Golden Rules” not to sell so-called dirty minerals.[30]

Some of the major retailers and jewelers that have signed the pledge include: Cartier, Helzberg Diamonds, J.C. Penney, QVC, Target, Tiffany & Co., Wal-Mart and Zale Corp.[31]

Despite this pledge, according to Cash for Gold USA, “[m]uch of the gold bought and sold each year is impossible to source, making it difficult for even the most respectable and scrupulous of traders to avoid buying conflict metals.”[32] Additionally, Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires companies to assure regulators that their purchase of gold and other minerals from the Congo “is not helping fund conflict.”[33] However, Reuters interviewed an expert who explained that “[g]old is just less tractable as a mineral in terms of being responsive to this kind of regulation, because it’s so easily smuggled. The total volume of gold moving is still quite high.”[34] According to Reuters, “[g]old can be mixed with metal from other sources and molded into dozens of different forms, which can be melted down and recycled again and again. Even small quantities make big money.”[35]

The No Dirty Gold campaign specifically targets possible gold and minerals that may eventually be extracted from the Pebble Mine. One prominent opponent of the Pebble Mine is Michael Kowalski, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Tiffany & Co. According to Kowalski, “[t]here are some special places where mining clearly does not represent the best long-term use of resources. In Bristol Bay, we believe the extraordinary salmon fishery clearly provides the best opportunity to benefit Southwestern Alaskan communities in a sustainable way. For Tiffany & Co., -- and we believe for many of our fellow retail jewelers - this means we must look to other places to responsibly source our gold.”[36]

Responding to the jewelers preemptive boycott in the Homer News columnist Andrew Jensen explained that, “Pebble CEO [John] Shively is largely dismissive of the jewelers signatures as a public relations campaign without real merit that costs retailers nothing while buying favor from environmental groups, especially with gold production at Pebble a decade away even under a best-case scenario.”[37]


Partnership Programs


One way that Earthworks raises funds is by partnering with smaller organizations and providing services for a fee. According to Earthworks’ financial audit documents, “Earthworks provides back-office services (including payroll, accounting, and administration), a legal framework, and capacity building support to a variety of small programs (single staff, or volunteer only organizations) that share our mission of protecting communities and the environment from the negative impacts of mineral development.”[38]

In 2011, Earthworks partnered with the following groups:

  • Ethical Metalsmiths
  • Common Ground United
  • Alaskans for Responsible Mining
  • Arizona Mining Coalition
  • ShaleTest[39]


Connections to Robert Gillam


Earthworks is closely aligned with Robert “Bob” Gillam – a leading opponent of the Pebble Mine. According to Greenwire, “Gillam has allied himself with advocacy groups such as Trout Unlimited and Earthworks that have actively fought Pebble for years now. Those groups have lined up a star-studded roster of opponents that includes celebrity chefs and Hollywood icons, including the actor and environmental activist Robert Redford.”[40]

Gillam, who owns a lodge in Bristol Bay, is a multi-millionaire who bankrolls groups and projects opposed to Pebble Mine. Gillam founded, and is still president of McKinley Capital Management – an international investment firm that has netted Gillam millions earning him the title of Alaska’s richest man.[41]

In 2011, Gillam funded a ballot initiative called “Save Our Salmon” that called for a ban on open-pit mining in the Bristol Bay region.[42] The initiative passed by a slim margin, but Alaska sued alleging that “the local ordinance voters passed would nullify state permitting processes and, according to a Department of Law press statement, ‘tilt the constitutional balance’ and legislative prerogative on developing Alaska’s resources from the state Legislature toward municipal government.”[43]

Gillam’s zealous campaign efforts led to $25,500 in fines from the Alaska Public Offices Commission for violating election laws.[44] Additionally, according to the Alaska Dispatch, in “spring 2010, Gillam and entities associated with him – Alaskans for Clean Water and the Renewable Resources Coalition – agreed to pay the commission $100,000 in a settlement related to a citizens’ initiative and alleged violations involving an advertising campaign targeting Pebble.”[45]

Gillam was also accused of using local clergy to sway voters. Criticizing Gillam’s tactics, Alex Gimarc of the Anchorage Daily Planet wrote, “[s]ooner or later, the leftist By-Any-Means-Necessary political campaign needs to stop. While Gillam and those who agree with him may win this particular vote, the damage they will do to Bristol Bay and those that live there by putting clergy into play, and conducting personal attacks will be massive.”[46] Critics have also suggested that Gillam’s efforts are really a self-motivated desire to preserve the value of his Bristol Bay lodge. According to Alaska Magazine, “[c]ritics say Gillam is the most well heeled not-in-my-backyarder of them all, willing to spend whatever it takes to preserve the value of his nine-bedroom, 14,000-square-foot lodge.”[47]


Financial Information


In 2011, Earthworks had total revenues of $1,376,880, down from $2,307,785 the previous year.[48]

The following groups have donated to Earthworks:

  • David & Lucile Packard Foundation ($480,000)[49]
  • Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation ($567,246 towards Earthworks’ anti-Pebble Mine work)[50] According to the Homer News, Gordon Moore has contributed more money than anyone else to stop the Pebble Mine.[51] Columnist Andrew Jensen noted that “Moore, the retired co-founder of Intel Corp., has given at least $10.3 million in grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation since 2003 to Pebble opposition groups.”[52]
  • William Penn Foundation ($157,500 towards Earthworks’ anti-fracking campaigns)[53]
  • Tides Foundation ($91,000 in 2010 and $116,500 in 2009)[54]
  • Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund ($225,000 in 2010 and another $225,00 in 2009 for Earthworks’ No Dirty Gold campaign)[55]
  • Overbrook Foundation ($35,000 in 2012 for Earthworks No Dirty Gold Campaign, and $40,000 in 2011 for anti-mining efforts)[56]
  • Alaska Conservation Fund ($25,000 in 2011 for an anti-coal campaign and $50,000 in 2009)[57]
  • Ecotrust[58]
  • Growald Foundation ($20,000 in 2008, and another $20,000 in 2007)[59]
  • Turner Foundation[60]

Other major donors listed in Earthworks’ 2010 Annual Report include: Davies/Weeden Fund, Educational Foundation of America, Fanwood Foundation, Ethan Grossman Family Charitable Gift Fund, William & Flora Hewlett Foundation, Leighty Foundation, Marshall L. and Perrine D. McCune Charitable Foundation, Curtis & Edith Munson Foundation, New-Land Foundation, New York Community Trust, Norcross Wildlife Foundation, Norman Foundation, Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation, Overbrook Foundation, Park Foundation, Patagonia, William P. Peabody Charitable Gift Fund, Scherman Foundation, Schwab Charitable Trust, Swimmer Family Foundation, Threshold Foundation, True North Foundation, Wiancko Charitable Foundation, Wilburforce Foundation and Winky Foundation.[61]


Leadership (as of October 2012)


Michael E. Conroy (Chairman of the Board) (Previously worked at the Ford Foundation)
Jennifer Krill, Executive Director (2011 Salary, $89,723)
Bruce Baizel, Senior Staff Attorney
Ann Corbett, Development Director
Gwen Lachelt, Oil & Gas Accountability Project Director


Contact Information


Earthworks
1612 K Street, NW
Suite 808
Washington, D.C., USA 20006

phone: 202.887.1872
fascimile: 202.887.1875
email: info@earthworksaction.org

Website: http://www.earthworksaction.org/


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  1. ^ “About Earthworks,” Earthworks, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/about as of October 9, 2012.
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  5. ^ “Our Bristol Bay,” Earthworks, available at http://ourbristolbay.com/index.html as of October 9, 2012.
  6. ^ “The Risks of Pebble Mine,” Earthworks – Our Bristol Bay, available at http://ourbristolbay.com/the-risk-factsheet.html as of October 9, 2012.
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  11. ^ Bonnie Gestring, “Protecting America’s Richest Fishery: Alaska’s Bristol Bay,” Earthworks – Earthblog, October 4, 2012, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/earthblog/detail/protecting_americas_richest_fishery_alaskas_bristol_bay as of October 9, 2012.
  12. ^ “The Risks of Pebble Mine,” Earthworks – Our Bristol Bay, available at http://ourbristolbay.com/the-risk-factsheet.html as of October 9, 2012.
  13. ^ “The EPA Study on Alaska’s Bristol Bay is Out: Tell EPA to Take the Next Step to Protect Bristol Bay & Stop the Pebble Mine,” Earthworks, available at http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/676/p/dia/action/public/?action_KEY=10525 as of October 9, 2012.
  14. ^ “The EPA Study on Alaska’s Bristol Bay is Out: Tell EPA to Take the Next Step to Protect Bristol Bay & Stop the Pebble Mine,” Earthworks, available at http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/676/p/dia/action/public/?action_KEY=10525 as of October 9, 2012.
  15. ^ “New Report Highlights Risks to Bristol Bay Fishery from Pebble Mine,” Earthworks, August 6, 2012, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/media/detail/new_report_highlights_risks_to_bristol_bay_fishery_from_pebble_mine as of October 9, 2012. To read the full report, see “U.S. Copper Porphyry Mines,” Earthworks, July 2012, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/files/publications/Porphyry_Copper_Mines_Track_Record_-_8-2012.pdf as of October 9, 2012.
  16. ^ Bonnie Gestring, “The Pebble Mine: An Unacceptable Risk to Bristol Bay Wild Salmon Fishery,” Earthworks, November 21, 2011, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/library/detail/the_pebble_mine_an_unacceptable_risk_to_the_bristol_bay_wild_salmon_fishery as of October 9, 2011.
  17. ^ Andrew Jensen, “Rhetoric Battles Reality at Pebble Project,” Homer News, February 2, 2011, available at http://homernews.com/stories/020211/business_rbrapp.shtml#.UGyCF45wY-Y as of October 9, 2012.
  18. ^ Andrew Jensen, “Rhetoric Battles Reality at Pebble Project,” Homer News, February 2, 2011, available at http://homernews.com/stories/020211/business_rbrapp.shtml#.UGyCF45wY-Y as of October 9, 2012.
  19. ^ Grover Norquist and Patrick Gleason “W.H. Talks Wind Energy But Won’t Support It,” Politico, September 24, 2012, available at http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0912/81603.html as of October 9, 2012.
  20. ^ “Who We Are,” Stop the Frack Attack, available at http://www.stopthefrackattack.org/who-we-are/ as of October 9, 2012.
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  22. ^ Russell Gold, “Faulty Wells, Not Fracking, Blamed for Water Pollution,” Wall Street Journal, March 25, 2012, available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304537904577277814040731688.html as of October 9, 2012.
  23. ^ Lauren Pagel, “Earthworks Statement Before the State Department Hearing on the Keystone XL Tar Sands Pipeline,” Earthworks, June 29, 2010, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/library/detail/earthworks_statement_before_the_state_department_hearing_on_the_keystone_xl/ as of October 9, 2012.
  24. ^ Lauren Pagel, “Earthworks Statement Before the State Department Hearing on the Keystone XL Tar Sands Pipeline,” Earthworks, June 29, 2010, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/library/detail/earthworks_statement_before_the_state_department_hearing_on_the_keystone_xl/ as of October 9, 2012.
  25. ^ Neil Maghami, American Greens Vs. Canadian Oil Producers: The War Over the Alberta Oil Sands,” Capital Research Center, March 1, 2011, available at http://www.capitalresearch.org/2011/03/american-greens-vs-canadian-oil-producers-the-war-over-the-alberta-oil-sands/ as of October 9, 2012.
  26. ^ Nicolas Loris, “Keystone a Key Ingredient Missing from Obama’s Economic Recovery Recipe,” Heritage Foundation – Webmemo #3472, January 25, 2012, available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/01/keystone-pipeline-rejection-and-obamas-economic-recovery-plan?query=Keystone+a+Key+Ingredient+Missing+from+Obama’s+Economic+Recovery+Recipe as of October 9, 2012.
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  29. ^ “No Dirty Gold,” Earthworks, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/change_corporations/no_dirty_gold as of October 9, 2012.
  30. ^ “Retailers Who Support the Golden Rule,” Earthworks – No Dirty Gold, available at http://www.nodirtygold.org/supporting_retailers.cfm as of October 9, 2012.
  31. ^ “Retailers Who Support the Golden Rules,” Earthworks – No Dirty Gold, available at http://www.nodirtygold.org/supporting_retailers.cfm as of October 9, 2012.
  32. ^ “Illegal Conflict Gold and Diamonds are Nearly Impossible to Track,” Cash for Gold USA, May 24, 2012, available at http://cashforgoldusa.com/blog/2012/05/illegal-conflict-gold-and-diamonds-are-nearly-impossible-to-track/ as of October 9, 2012.
  33. ^ Jonny Hogg and Jan Harvey, “‘Conflict Gold’ Trade Continues in Face of U.S. Law,” Reuters, June 29, 2012, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/29/us-gold-conflict-idUSBRE85S1A420120629 as of October 9, 2012.
  34. ^ Jonny Hogg and Jan Harvey, “‘Conflict Gold’ Trade Continues in Face of U.S. Law,” Reuters, June 29, 2012, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/29/us-gold-conflict-idUSBRE85S1A420120629 as of October 9, 2012.
  35. ^ Jonny Hogg and Jan Harvey, “‘Conflict Gold’ Trade Continues in Face of U.S. Law,” Reuters, June 29, 2012, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/29/us-gold-conflict-idUSBRE85S1A420120629 as of October 9, 2012.
  36. ^ “Statements of Support from Jewelers for Protecting the Bristol Bay Watershed,” Earthworks – No Dirty Gold, available at http://www.nodirtygold.org/ak2uk.cfm as of October 9, 2012.
  37. ^ Andrew Jensen, “Rhetoric Battles Reality at Pebble Project,” Homer News, February 2, 2011, available at http://homernews.com/stories/020211/business_rbrapp.shtml#.UGyCF45wY-Y as of October 9, 2012.
  38. ^ “Earthworks Audited Financial Statements Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010,” Dunham, Aukump & Rhodes, PLC, April 3, 2012, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/files/publications/Earthworks_audit_FY_2011_FINAL.pdf as of October 9, 2012.
  39. ^ “Earthworks Audited Financial Statements Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010,” Dunham, Aukump & Rhodes, PLC, April 3, 2012, available at http://www.earthworksaction.org/files/publications/Earthworks_audit_FY_2011_FINAL.pdf as of October 9, 2012.
  40. ^ Gabriel Nelson, “Salmon: Battle for Bristol Bay, a Resource for the Ages,” Environment & Energy News – Greenwire, December 21, 2011, available at http://www.eenews.net/public/Greenwire/2011/12/21/1 as of October 9, 2012.
  41. ^ Roseanne Pagano, “Pebble Mine’s Formidable Foe,” Alaska Magazine, February 2012, available at http://alaskamag.com/article/76/02/pebble_mines_formidable_foe as of October 9, 2012.
  42. ^ “Alaska Residency Ruling Offers Ammo to Pebble Mine Opponents,” Renewable Resources Coalition, August 15, 2012, available at http://www.renewableresourcescoalition.org/newsroom/2012-08-15/alaska-residency-ruling-offers-ammo-to-pebble-mine-opponents as of October 9, 2012. (“Gillam. The Pebble project’s chief adversary is also one of Alaska’s wealthiest residents and owns a lodge near the mineral deposit. Bob Gillam bankrolled the Save Our Salmon initiative and has contributed to other efforts aimed at stopping the mine before federal permitting begins.”)
  43. ^ Eric Christopher Adams, “State Sues to Stop Anti-Pebble ‘Save Our Salmon’ Initiative,” Alaska Dispatch,” October 28, 2011, available at http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/state-sues-stop-anti-pebble-save-our-salmon-initiative as of October 9, 2012.
  44. ^ Alex DeMarban, “State Regulators Fine Opponents of Proposed Pebble Mine,” Alaska Dispatch, December 19, 2011, available at http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/state-regulators-fine-opponents-proposed-pebble-mine as of October 9, 2012.
  45. ^ Alex DeMarban, “State Regulators Fine Opponents of Proposed Pebble Mine,” Alaska Dispatch, December 19, 2011, available at http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/state-regulators-fine-opponents-proposed-pebble-mine as of October 9, 2012.
  46. ^ Alex Gimarc, “Messenger Shooting,” Anchorage Daily Planet, September 29, 2011, available at http://www.anchoragedailyplanet.com/3839/messenger-shooting/ as of October 9, 2012.
  47. ^ Roseanne Pagano, “Pebble Mine’s Formidable Foe,” Alaska Magazine, February 2012, available at http://alaskamag.com/article/76/02/pebble_mines_formidable_foe as of October 9, 2012.
  48. ^ Financial information retrieved from Guidestar on October 1, 2012.
  49. ^ “Grants Database – Earthworks 2010,” David & Lucile Packard Foundation, available at http://www.packard.org/grants/grants-database/earthworks-2/ as of October 9, 2012. And “Grants Database – Earthworks 2009,” available at http://www.packard.org/grants/grants-database/earthworks/ as of October 9, 2012.
  50. ^ “Grants Summary – Earthworks,” Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, available at http://www.moore.org/grant.aspx?id=4021 as of October 9, 2012.
  51. ^ Andrew Jensen, “Rhetoric Battles Reality at Pebble Project,” Homer News, February 2, 2011, available at http://homernews.com/stories/020211/business_rbrapp.shtml#.UGyCF45wY-Y as of October 9, 2012.
  52. ^ Andrew Jensen, “Rhetoric Battles Reality at Pebble Project,” Homer News, February 2, 2011, available at http://homernews.com/stories/020211/business_rbrapp.shtml#.UGyCF45wY-Y as of October 9, 2012.
  53. ^ ”Grants,” William Penn Foundation, available at http://www.williampennfoundation.org/SearchResults.aspx?n=Earthworks as of October 9, 2012.
  54. ^ “Tides Foundation 2010 Grantee List,” Tides Foundation, available at http://www.tides.org/fileadmin/user/pdf/Tides-Foundation-List-of-Grantees-2010.pdf as of October 1, 2012. And “Tides Foundation 2009 Grantee List,” Tides Foundation, available at http://www.tides.org/fileadmin/user/pdf/Tides-Foundation-List-of-Grantees-2009.pdf as of October 9, 2012.
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  56. ^ “Our Grantees,” The Overbrook Foundation, available at http://www.overbrook.org/programs/r_receipents.html as of October 9, 2012. And “2011 Annual Report on Grants,” The Overbrook Foundation, available at http://www.overbrook.org/private/Annual_Reports/2011_Annual_Report_On_Grants.pdf as of October 1, 2012.
  57. ^ “FY11 Grants Awarded,” Alaska Conservation Foundation,” available at http://alaskaconservation.org/strategic-funding/fy11-grants-awarded/ as of October 9, 2012. And “All Grants Awarded in FY2009,” Alaska Conservation Foundation, available at http://alaskaconservation.org/foundation-work/funding/community-capacity/ as of October 9, 2012.
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  59. ^ “2008 Grantees,” Harder Foundation, available at http://theharderfoundation.org/grantees/2008grants/document_view as of October 9, 2012. And also, “2007 Grantees,” Harder Foundation, available at http://theharderfoundation.org/grantees/2007grants/document_view as of October 9, 2012.
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